Supporting Research

Te Ara Whakamana: Mana Enhancement is unique in that it combines and then applies many proven scientific and educational theories, research and knowledge from both Western and Māori world views to an actual tool that is effective and simple to use.  This praxis allows professionals with expertise from many fields to practically apply their knowledge and be guided, supported by and explore the latest research and thinking in behaviour change within a sound and culturally effective framework.

Embedded in Te Ara Whakamana: Mana Enhancement are links to the following theories and research:

Mindfulness  ●  Motivational Interviewing    Neuro Linguistic Programming  ●  Positive Psychology (a paradigm shift)  ●  Attachment Theory  ●  Cognitive Behavioural Therapy  ●  Choice Theory    Ecological Systems Theory  ●  Kaupapa Māori Theory  ●  Narrative Theory  ●  Social Learning Theory  ●  Action Research  ●  Restorative Justice  ●  Self Monitoring  ●  Whare Tapa Whā  ●  Hua Oranga 




Western Science and Spirituality

Recent research links emerging psycho therapeutic methods in Western Psychology such as Positive Psychology, Mindfulness and Meditation with the spiritual dimension (Baumgardner and Crothers, 2009)*, although the legacy of exclusion of spiritual aspects in Western Psychology as non-scientific and therefore unworthy of attention remains relatively unaddressed. Shiraev and Levy (2013)**, state  '...most professional psychologists attending colleges and universities in Western countries have little knowledge about the use of spirituality in counselling and therapy and as a result, many contemporary psychologists are only at the beginning stages of understanding spirituality, a source of motivation and reasoning for many people living in traditional cultures and modern settings (Penny et al., 2009)***.  

For Henry and Pene (2010)****, 'Kaupapa Māori emphasizes interdependence and spirituality as a fundamental component of intellectual endeavour and knowledge construction. It is implicitly founded on collective consciousness, and historical and cultural concepts that are not necessarily reflected in qualitative-quantitative, or positivist interpretive critical categorisations.   

 To better understand the connection between spirituality and well being and to appreciate the benefits that people might experience from their value or belief systems, Coyle (2001)***** suggests that, '...practitioners must actively explore the content of those systems in a respectful way'.  

Te Ara Whakamana: Mana Enhancement offers a culturally centered framework from which professionals and practitioners can commence such exploration.


        *Baumgardner, S . & Crothers, M ., Positive PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin, Eau Claire., 2009.
     ** Shiraev, E. B.; & Levy, D.,  Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications, Fifth Edition 5th. Boston: Pearson., 2010.
   *** Henry, E. & Pene, H., Kaupapa Māori: Locating Indigenous Ontology, Epistemology and Methodology in the Academy., in Organization, 2001, 8., SAGE., London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi
**** Coyle, J., Spirituality and health: towards a framework for exploring the relationship between spirituality and health, in Journal of Advanced Nursing Volume 37, Issue 6, pages 589–597, Wiley Online Library, March 2002.